You can use variables based on a database or OLE data object query. Also the Place option for Excel files has settings that allow to only import data in existing tables instead of creating an entirely new table. Ask for the specifics in the ID forum(s).
set your preferences in ID to link spreadsheet and text file data before you place the Excel file and you will be asked to to update the link when the spreadsheet is modified. You must either use Table and Cell styles, or do your formatting in Excel, though, or you will lose any format changes in ID when you update.
And you'll likely want to change the prefs back again after placing the spreadsheet so other files don't link automatically.