No, Acrobat won't do this.
(And bear in mind an embedded font is not necessarily complete or usable as a font file even if you manage to extract it. At the obvious level it may be a font subset, missing most characters. Less visibly, it could be missing critical font tables needed by MacOS/Windows to actually install or use it).
Nor will Adobe even entertain the idea of adding such a feature! Any such font extraction operations are at best on very shaky legal grounds!