1. In the library module, change the sort order as capture time to get them in order.
Sorting options can be accessed via Toolbar. [Press T to enable Toolbar if not present]
2. You can filter the images on the basis of keywords.
Once you add a keyword, it appears under the keyword list panel in Library Module.
You can click on the right arrow at the end of that word in the keyword list panel to get the result.
Refer this tutorial to filter on the basis of keywords : Lightroom - filtering with keywords - YouTube
I changed the order under View > Sort > Capture Time because I didn't see what you were referring to, and that seemed to help. However:
1. All of the most recent photos seem to be at the bottom. Is there a way to make them display at the top?
2. There are still some older photos and videos displaying near the bottom that do not belong there. Is this simply a meta data issue?
1. Click on A-Z icon on left of Sort option to sort in the descending order.
2. Yes, this is due to metadata as Lightroom reads the date as per metadata and sorts according to that
View->Sort->Capture Time followed by View->Sort->Descending