There are lots of programs, including freeware ones, that will tag your photos, no need really for Lightroom to do this task. However, in answer to your question, Lightroom tags can be written to the photos so that people who don't have Lightroom can search for them.
Thanks for your response! Can people search just a regular desktop folder system if the tags are included in the export? Also, care to share any of the programs that will tag photos? Thanks again.
Yes a search using your operating system's search feature will find photos with the desired tags, but it will relatively slow compared to search in Lightroom.
The only freeware program that I know of that will add tags to your photos is called GeoSetter, but there are probably dozens available, you might want to search for them.