What you want can't be done. They are two different programs, so they use different coding. I think your best bet would be to make your edits in Illustrator, and then place the edited file into your InDesign layout as a graphic.
Have you got Acrobat DC or provably any Recent Pro version?
If you click edit pdf you can select text and copy it into InDesign as editable plain text
Normally not, but try a CC library, add object from Illustrator to a Library and try to use it in InDesign. Sometimes it does work.
Or buy a 3rd party plugin in PDF2ID, it makes PDFs editable in InDesign.