Render time depends on the composition size, frame rate and on the compression (codec) that you use. Times for the very same composition rendered to different formats can be very different. The biggest factor in render times is the combination of effects and motion blur that you add to your project. The smallest factor, but it can add up, is the speed of the connection to the drive you are rendering to. You'll get a direct increase in rendering speed that can be easily measured if you are rendering to an external drive through a USB 2 connection vs a SSD drive connected through SDI or Thunderbolt. Pick the fastest drive with the most space for your renders to minimize the render time but don't expect fast drives to reduce your render times by a bunch unless you're getting 7 or 8 frames per second. Sometimes you'll be better off to render digital intermediates for things that take a long time to render like grain or particle systems and then do your compositing later. If you are trying to edit in AE you are wasting time. Make sure that you are creating your effects shots in AE and then either render them or if they are very short shots or sequences you can use Dynamic link to embed the shots in Premiere Pro for editing. I have a few DI (digital intermediate) formats that I use all the time. Most of my work in AE is 32 bit float so I usually render to a 12 bit or better 4:4:4 color DI or a 32 bit image sequence. My production masters are almost all 12 bit or better video files. 99% of my deliverables (files I post or send to the client) are mp4 standard HD (1920X1080 @ 29.97 fps) using the YouTube preset in the Adobe Media Encoder with multi pass and high quality selected. I also keep jacking up the data rate until it matches the MAX recommended by YouTube.
I have had effects shots that take 20 minutes a frame to render. I have also done effects shots that render at seven or eight frames a second. It all depends on what you are doing. I'd say my average is about 15 to 20 seconds per frame for composites and maybe as much as a minute a frame for "out there' effects shots with lots of lighting, particle and motion effects in each frame.