This is an odd problem that I have never encountered.
However, two adjustments that you might want to experiment with are available from the Task Manager (hopefully the same settings as Windows 7):
Under Processes, click on InDesign.exe and then right-click and select Set Priority. It should be set on "Normal". Change it to a lower value.
The next one is Set Affinity. It should be set to "All Processors". If your CPU is a multi-processor model, deselect one or more processors.
Does that help?
You may want to also see what is really happening in the background by running Process Explorer and Process Monitor from SysInternals (free Microsoft tools).
I took a look via the Process Explorer and Process Monitor and saw nothing particularly odd. However, as you would guess, it has not done it again today. So, will take a few days to monitor as I do my work and see what shows. I am somewhat reluctant to downgrade priority and affinity due to the rather intensive file processing that InDesign does. The fact that invoking the task manager revives the frozen screens must mean something in InDesign is messing with the Windows file system. It like its setting priority for all tasks and mouse interaction to itself but does not create an error. I looked at the event viewers; they have not logged anything about this. Having written a number of apps myself, this looks suspiciously like a taking but not releasing memory issue. It can be hard to isolate issues with Windows auto installing everything, including a number of updates not ready for primetime. They sometimes create quite the headache to recover from and though they could be related in some way to this issue, who can tell. The fact that this happened some time ago in Win 7 and the CS6 version of InDesign leads one to believe its InDesign. I will report back.
It's still happening, again, only with InDesign. I have Process Explorer and Process Monitor open, however, it freezes them too. So, can't tell what happened! Talk about a closed loop. Unfortunately, there is no way to talk to anyone at Adobe; the contact us link just take you to trouble shooting articles, never can actually send a message or talk to anyone. Hope is that someone from Adobe reads this and responds. I will add it to a bug report, but there is no response to that either, so don't know what the impact will be. The issue remains unanswered.