Long and short: No. In theory you can use effects like Channel Combiner and by animating their settings switch mattes on and off (in contrast to conventional mattes), but this would require to pre-compose the planet with its orbit animation to obtain correct results, so it's not particularly intuitive. So for what it's worth - as long as it's really just a single layer duplicate and possibly a matte layer for the sun, it seems you are trying to make something that is actually simple quite complicated...
Thanks for your reply.
I figured out a little hack: You can change all the layers to 3D, then toggle the keyframes on the Z position from 0.0 to 0.1.
Going into the Graph Editor and separating the X,Y,Z positions helps too
Seems to work pretty well for this style of 2D animation (eg: South Park)