The exact recovery folder location can be found through InDesign preferences.
Go to Edit > Preferences > File Handling
There you will see the Document Data Recovery Folder location.
Please visit the following page if you are looking for further info around the same:
The only way you'll find the "exact recovery folder location" here is if the path is short enough to fit in the area where the path is displayed in the UI (which it most certainly is not). Otherwise you'll see only a portion of the beginning and end of the path, such as:
"C:\User...ersion 11.0\en_US\Caches\InDesign Recovery"
And, as you can tell, this is not at all helpful in digging down to the recovery folder. Contrary to popular practice, hovering your mouse over this does not reveal the entire path. Upon clicking "Browse...", an explorer window pops up to the most recently visited location, which will most likely not be your recovery folder. After that, you'll probably Google something like "Windows 10 InDesign Recovery path" and end up in this thread, which is a dead end—especially seeing as the "further info" link you've provided does not contain any information on the InDesign recovery location on Windows 10.
The correct default paths are listed in Troubleshooting 101: Replace, or "trash" your preferences
Unless you deliberately move it, the recovery folder will be in the same Caches folder as the InDesign SavedData file.
For anyone looking for the InDesign Recovery folder in order to delete the files, I likewise was unable to see the whole path in Preferences -> File Handling, but when I opened InDesign again a prompt came up with the option to Delete all Recovery Files (the second on the list). I did this and so far I haven't crashed again.