I have never tried this, but I believe you should be able to modify the Lightroom preference file (which is just plain text) that is created upon installation so that it sets the catalog location to the desired (non-network) drive location
I tried this already, only specifying the alternate catalog path in the preferences files, hoping that the rest of the user profile is created dynamically.
But unfortunately the user profile is not created. I would need to copy a complete profile from a dummy installation to every user, which I don't really like to do.
Again, I'll state up front that I have never tried this, so maybe I'm wrong ...
However, you're talking about "user profile" and I'm talking about just the preference file ... I believe that once you install the default installation, you can then modify the preference file before the user ever launches Lightroom so that the default folder location is wherever you want it to be.
And if that's exactly what you tried, and it didn't work, then I'm out of ideas.