That is the control panel and it is contextual.
Select some text and you’ll get text modification choices. But, I strongly encourage you to use styles for this.
Those are Paragraph controls, so they'll be there if you switch from the current character mode to paragraph mode in the panel. If you have sufficient width (which apparently you don't on that monitor), the controls would appear in both modes.
How do I switch modes?
BTW, I had half a dozen crashes on Day 1 until I tried your trashing the preference file cure!
There are two buttons on the left end of the Control panel in text mode, the A and the Pilcrow, to switch between character and paragraph modes.