Unfortunately Typekit accounts are attached to an Adobe ID, and Typekit fonts can only be synced to the desktop via the Creative Cloud app.
If your school uses a device license for Creative Cloud that does not require you to log in with an Adobe ID, it's unlikely that Typekit Portfolio is included in your service.
Sorry I couldn't be more helpful here!
We have the same issue - but are only wanting to use the Free Fonts from Typekit that are usually required by textbooks that our students are using.
The material out there - between Adobe and publishers - about this issue is extremely confusing. Add in working with an IT department and the stress level just goes up.
Syncing can't work without you being signed in to the Creative Cloud desktop application.
Many of the free fonts on Typekit are available for free download elsewhere on the internet, so you might be able to install some fonts locally on your machines. Fontsquirrel.com is a reputable resource for open source fonts.
I use Adobe CC products in my classroom. The IT dept. does not allow faculty to have access to the Adobe ID and Password associated with the computer lab installs. I understand this is a pretty standard policy, but as a result, my students are not able to use Typekit, as it requires a sign in to sync fonts. Is there a work around for this issue? For example, if we download and use the Creative Cloud Desktop App, does it require a sign in to use typekit?
I teach Adobe products mostly in Adobe Authorized Training Centers where I have access to TypeKit, but, like you, I also teach at a community college where I don't have TypeKit. When I finally convinced them to move to Creative Cloud a year ago, they blocked the "Cloud" application. I explained the issue to IT and here is what I worked out with them.
For one of the sessions, I log in on my instructor's station with my own Adobe ID and demonstrate TypeKit and CC libraries. I let them know which session, and they "clean up" my computer after I leave. I also make sure I sign out of Creative Cloud before I leave. That seems to work, and the students at least get to learn about TypeKit while they are taking the class.
I hope this helps you.