Coming from Nuke, I'm a bit confused how After Effects has so many time remapping methods that as far as I can tell are just reconfigurations of the same processes. For my purposes AE's Time Warp seems the most powerful and best suited for remapping footage time, but can someone please explain to me when the various other remapping modifiers (available under Layer > Time) are more appropriate?
This has nothing to do with "appropriate" or not. This is historically grown redundancy since for a long time AE didn't have Timewarp and motion vector based interpolation. It also comes down to things like order of operations and how this stuff is accessible via expressions and scripts, in particular when evaluating keyframes and property values rather than interpolating pixels. You'll notice that when time-remapping or stretching pre-comps for instance...
Makes sense Mylenium -- I'm sure as I get deeper in to these various options I'll come to understand the contextual advantages of each of the remapping methods.