I never got it work on the device. I decided to try and different tack for windows 10 and have switched to using the cordova build in visual studio 2015.
I've just ported across the html, css, js, images and res files into the project created by visual studio and it seems to be much happier. I have successfully test deployed it onto the phone I'm using for testing.
I don't want to spend lots of time making it work in windows and risk breaking it for both android and ios in phonegap build.
I have the same problem when I want to launch the app on my desktop W10 PC. It's opening (without icons and splashcreen) then suddenly closed without any error message.
It is a Phonegap Build appx. I have the certificate install correctly on the PC to deploy side load.
Moreover, on a tablet Sony Vaio, when I try to deploy the appx (not running, just deploying this time), I have an error in PowerShell saying that my appx package depends on Microsoft.Net.Native.Framework.1.2
I checked some forums and .Net.Native seems to be install with VS2015 but on the desktop PC, I don't have VS... and the app deploying correctly...
The tablet has been updated recently to W10 with the free update from Windows Update.
I have the same issue.