You cannot execute a script without InDesign running.
Do you have inDesign Server Version installed ???
How would InDesign Server help?
Without opening InDesign
ID would have to be running, but you could run a script in the background if that helps?
With AppleScript you can open a doc without showing its window—I'm sure there is an equivalent JS:
tell application "Adobe InDesign CC 2014"
open yourfilepath without showing window
Yep there's a Windows equivalent.
One unlikely alternative is to target the ESTK and not ID but one will be pretty limited to what one can do to the document to just messing around with metadata and the likes.
I am not really confident with VB but I guess you could have a VBS that could start InDesign and either do further work or call a jsx script. But in any cases, you would see InDesign running.
FWIW, I met some engineer who, yet prohibited, was able to run InDesign Client, through COM interface. But I don't know if he was able to get result without UI loading or if it was just a similar approach of VB.