There have been a few threads about this already. There's a bug somewhere (you can file a bug report if you want the AE team to hear about it).
If you don't try to launch Bridge via AE, but just go start it up like any other program, you can navigate to the presets in Bridge and preview them.
Then, back in AE, just go to the Effects and Presets panel (or the Animation>Apply Animation Preset menu command) to apply them.
I never use Bridge as anything more than a source for presets. So when I open it like any other program, it only shows me what is on my computer - NO PRESETS to be found.
You have to navigate to where the presets are located. The ones that ship with AE should be in your After Effects support files folder.
Can you be more specific? How do I navigate to the presets and load them into Bridge?
Are you familiar with how to navigate your OS's file structure with Bridge?
What OS are you using?
On Windows the file path is something like:
C:\Program Files\Adobe\Adobe After Effects CC 2015.3\Support Files\Presets
...If I remember correctly.
Just navigate there with Bridge as if you were navigating to a folder of files you wanted to rename or something.
This issue is fixed in the After Effects CC 2015.3 (13.8.1) bug-fix update. This update, available now, can be installed using the Creative Cloud desktop application, or by choosing Help > Updates inside any Adobe application.