LR keeps a lot of data in the appdata folder. This makes it difficult to move a catalog to another computer without losing a lot of data that has been set up. For example Develop Presets and the "My Locations" data in the Map module is not present when you move a catalog and all the image files to a new computer. I don't understand why Adobe has chosen to store the data there rather than in a file that can be easily move from computer to computer with the catalog. Is there a way to have LR store this data in another location (e.g. Dropbox or OneDrive)?
There is an option to store it with the catalog. However, the downside is that if you work with multiple catalogs on a computer, your presets are not available to all catalogs without manually copying or re-adding them.
Then Copy that other data, the stuff in the AppData folder, from one computer to the other.
Is there a way to have LR store this data in another location (e.g. Dropbox or OneDrive)?
I've been doing so since 2011. See the section Symbolic Links or Aliases here and on Presets and Templates.