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FIRST QUESTION: How can I get rid of this additional white border and get a document which is the 210x297mm I want?
Turn off crop marks
THIRD QUESTION: How do I make sure the bleed of these images appears on the inner side of the page where the image is placed instead of on the inner side of the facing page?
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OK, you've go a couple of things going on here. First, the additional page size is required to hold the entire crop mark. If you eliminate the marks you will get the correct size, and your little white lines will disappear.
Those lines are there because you've set the crop offset to 0 and ID puts a white stroke behind the crops to make them visible. Crop marks should always be offset at least as much as the bleed amount to keep them entirely out of the page image area even if the trimming is offset and uses a part of the bleed on one edge (that's what bleed is for -- to hide offset trimming).
The edge of the opposite page is the inside bleed area. Depending on how the document will be bound you may not actually need an inside bleed, but if you do there is no problem using the opposite page edge unless there is a color break of some sort at the spine -- no problems with crossover images or empty margins. If you do have a color break you need to split the spread. See InDesignSecrets » Blog Archive » Breaking Pages Apart to Bleed Off a Spine
So the bottom line is you should move the crop marks out at least 4mm, which will result in your PDF being 8mm larger than it is now, so if you need to print his on a desktop printer and see the marks you need to make the doc smaller. If it's going out for commercial printing it doesn't matter as they'll be printing on an oversize sheet anyway, and most likely will trim your page to the bleed box in the imposition and add their own marks. If they don't need the inside bleed they can ignore that, too.
Thanks for the reply. The InDesignSecrets blogpost is exactly what I was looking for! I'm not sure wether I understand how crop and bleed marks work though. Basically I would like my document to be printed on a standard A4 format (since the printing shop asks a higher price for oversize sheets and I have to print about 1000 pages) and have some marks at a 4mm offset of the edge (to get the effect that after cutting this 4mm of my images reach all the way to the edge of the sheet, without risking a tiny white border due to cutting inaccuracies). Which marks should I use then to get these marks at 4mm from the page edges and a bleed extending past these marks? I tried using bleed marks instead of crop marks, and they give partially what I want (a mark at 4mm from the page edge and a pdf sized 210x297mm) but the bleed area (not sure if this is the correct term, but I think it is) is then left blank, while when using the crop marks it does show the bleeding image (like I want it) but then I have the issue that my PDF size is no longer 210x297 like I want it to be...
Print without those marks, only with bleed.
Most likely this is being printed on some sort of digital device, and it's pretty unlikely that such a device is actually capable of printing edge-to-edge on the sheet, so do you actually know what the printable area is on the A4 sheet? There's little point in designing something that you can't actually print on your chosen stock.
In order for bleed to work you have to trim off the edge. The crop marks are there to act as a guide for the cutter operator, but if you are working with A4 paper to start you probably can get away without them (or go ahead and include them with the understanding that they may well not show when your PDF is printed centered on an A4 sheet) and simply let the cutter operator know what the correct trim size will be and let him set his fence without marks.
It is indeed being printed on a printer that cannot print edge-to-edge. The printshop told me to count on a 2mm margin on each side. I just chose my bleed to be 4mm as an easy solution (knowing that only 2mm would be actually used as a bleed and 2mm would be blank since the printer can't go there). I attached a quick sketch of what it is exactly that I'm trying to achieve.
Unless you are going to have the printer cut off the non-printing area after the pages are printed you have no need for bleed at all. Just run your images that you want to "bleed" out to the edge of the page. The printer will simply not print anything in the edge area that is not imageable and you'll get the maximum coverage. Or run to 2 mm from an edge and that will probably work, too -- unless there is something else next to it that extends further and the unprintable margin is actually less than 2mm it will be impossible to see that it doesn't extend as far as it could because you are going to have a white margin all around anyway.
Ok, I get your point, thus I set up a bleed of 2mm. What should I take as document size then to end up with a PDF of 210x297mm and a final product (after cutting) of 202x289mm? And what do I set up for the crop marks? Thanks for all the help by the way, I never had to use InDesign in depth before so all of this is pretty new to me.
I don't think you did get my point. The marks are going to be irrelevant if they fall outside the printable area, which they will.
Set up the file at 202 x 289 and add a 2 mm bleed all around. Export without marks and include document bleed. Tell the printer to remove 2mm all around when they trim.