The system requirements of After Effects say you need a graphics card of GeForce or Quadro , but by Apple Mac Book Pro you get just an graphics card of AMD Radeon. Can I also use this for 3D rendering?
If you are asking about After Effects' ray-traced renderer, no.
The ray-traced renderer is based on NVIDIA's CUDA technology, so it needs an NVIDIA card.
That being said, the After Effects team considers the ray-traced renderer obsolete and they are putting their resources towards making the (much more powerful) Cineware even better. If you have CC versions of After Effects, you have Cinema 4D Lite and Cineware. See this tutorial series for how to use it.
If you are asking about Cineware and Cinema 4D, no.
Cinema 4D renders on the CPU, not the GPU, so what card you have is mostly irrelevant.
If you are asking about a third-party plugin like Element 3d, YES, you can use AMD cards for them, but it depends on the requirements of the plugin.
Plugins like Element 3d, Zaxwerks 3d Invigorator, Mettle's ShapeShifter, Red Giant Universe, etc. have their own requirements that have nothing to do with AE's old ray-traced renderer. So your card could work wonderfully for some or all of these. It depends on which card you have.