Which Adobe application are you facing issue with?
It won't work with white. It's changing one color to another (CHANGE color/ not MAKE color) and white isn't really a color.
without knowing exactly what you want to accomplish here, bare in mind that you can use other effects instead of "Change to Color" that give the same result. if it's graphic with only one color you can use "Fill" or "Tint" effect. if it's a layer that has more colors like a photo or video, you can use hue/saturation to change a range of colors. if you need more control, then you are really doing secondary color correction and there are tools for that too like the Lumetri effect or SA Color Finesse. and if you need more than that you can use adjustment layers or the compositing feature to isolate a part of layer to an effect do what ever you want with it.