I think that most well designed fonts have file associations which link together different styles of the same font like the ones I'm showing below:
If they do not, it's because the font designer or font foundary has not created such associations. All InDesign can do is display the fonts they were created.
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Correct. For the dirty details, see the official specifications: The Naming Table
It's a font designer's responsibility to fill in the correct data structures. For the style linking such as InDesign can recognize, this should be either
Font Family name. Up to four fonts can share the Font Family name, forming a font style linking group (regular, italic, bold, bold italic - as defined by OS/2.fsSelection bit settings).
(for really really old style fonts, with only Regular, Bold, Italic, and Bold Italic variants), or
Typographic Family name: The typographic family grouping doesn't impose any constraints on the number of faces within it, in contrast with the 4-style family grouping (ID 1), which is present both for historical reasons and to express style linking groups
Typographic Subfamily name: This allows font designers to specify a subfamily name within the typographic family grouping. This string must be unique within a particular typographic family.
If only the first method is used, InDesign groups each sub-part under the general font family name, such as "Bodoni 72" or "Bodoni 72 Oldstyle", and show the maximum of 4 styles in the flyout menu. If the second – 21st century – set of data is present, InDesign would still show "Bodoni 72" as the family name, but also add "Oldstyle Book", "Oldstyle Book Italic", and "Oldstyle Bold" as sub-styles of that same font.
OP's fonts are decidedly badly constructed, as it seems neither data is present. Of course, for such a large set of styles, the actual font family sub-style should have been made available, but it seems the designer did not even bother to fill in the single fields for "This is a Bold font" and "This is an Italic font". Thus, every single style appears as a unique font.
It could be worthwhile to contact the font supplier about this, so they can send a heads-up to the designer.
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It's also possible that you have an OLD, early version of the font, and it's been fixed in newer, later version(s).
Thanks for the excellent detailed information. Very helpful.
Thanks Steve. I'll check for an updated version.