If I understand correctly, you are asking if it is possible to import an image at the trim size of the document, then export a PDF with bleed and have that image extend into the bleed area. Is that really what you are asking?
If it is, then no. InDesign will not automatically make your images larger to fill the bleed area. What you put on the page is what you will export. You need to scale your image when you place it so that there is bleed included.