Presumably you're able to print documents from other applications, such as MSWord.
Which version of InDesign do you have and which OS?
Re your PDFs, did you export from InDesign using the Acrobat PDF presets?
I am able to print everything on all applications with no problems except in InDesign. I have InDesign CC2015. My computer is using windows 7 professional. I did try the Acrobat PDF presets and it would only print one part of the wording and no pictures when I did that.
Have a look in the InDesign Layers panel to check wether any layer in non-printing or something.
In addition to what Derek Cross said, here are some other thoughts:
Is it a font issue? Try changing the font of some of the characters to see if that works.
Is the text on a layer that is set to non-printing? Look at the options for the layer.
Are any objects set to non-printing? Check the Attributes panel.
Can you print other files from InDesign? Create a simple one page document and print it.
Which Print Presets are you using in File > Print? Maybe there is a custom setting causing the problem.
I have the same issue will all of my InDeslign files. I have different font on each document that seems to have no effect.