Because you have the touch workspace enabled. Click the dropdown and change it.
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A little more information on the Touch workspace and why it's there:
To return to another workspace, you can reattach a detachable keyboard if that what initiated the workspace change, or click the word Touch in the top right of the screen, and select Essentials (or another favorite).
This is my first venture into InDesign so sorry if I'm being a total idiot!
You are absolutely not being an idiot! There is an entire forum dedicated to the design space,
and most questions are, "how do I get out of it?"
Now you know something that many struggle with!
Here's another, just for fun: press Tab to hide your panels. Press Tab again to show them.