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No way around duplicating the sub-comps. You cannot have ambiguous conditions since pre-comps are not exclusive - they can be used in multiple compositions. You also have things backwards with regards to how AE expressions work. They work upstream by linking a child to inherit properties of a parent, not the other way around. What you want would not work one way or the other.
so how would you proceed in that case? How would you use the same animation several times but just with different text?
The common practice to create unique Comp structure is to duplicate the master comp in the project window, open it, duplicate the precomps in the project window and replace them with the ones in the duplicated master comp.
there is also an option to import the project to itself and you will get unique comps in the imported project.
another option would be the script True Comp Duplicator.
There is another option when creating loser 1/3's and that is to use the "template" feature in the Composition Settings and use Dynamic link and Premiere Pro to set the changing text when you are editing.
The only way to fully automate the process is to use scripting that a generates a new comp and sub comps from a text file or spreadsheet. There are a couple of these scripts available at AE Enhancers and this one that I use: CompsFromSpreadsheet 5 - aescripts + aeplugins - aescripts.com
Another option that is less automated is to create an animation preset for each of the layers that are moving in the master comp and then use those presets to add the animation to your comps.