You don't need the PDF to avoid transferring unwanted formatting.
Copy the text from the old document and select a piece of text in the new document that has your desired new formatting. Then use Edit > Paste Without Formatting.
This will force the pasted text to pick up formatting from the selected text in the new document.
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Looking at what you've provided, the text probably doesn't exist in the PDF file. Most probably the text has been replaced by a series of glyphs/strokes and a "text" place holder in the PDF has no equivalent character. You can try the PDF2ID https://www.recosoft.com/products/pdf2id plug-in with InDesign and see what it does - which converts PDF to InDesign (no copy paste required - I represent Recosoft that makes PDF2ID). If PDF2ID generates the same data, then what I said is correct. The text won't exist.
I've never been so happy to be an unobservant idiot! Thanks for pointing out this basic feature I've somehow never needed before now in my entire career
Thanks Paul, I may have other uses for that functionality, so I'll check out the software.