AE doesn't have anything like actions. You would have to create a script to apply a specific number of consecutive steps. However, for something like that it is far from necessary. That looks very much like standard effects stuff - invert image, apply some thresholds, tonemap it, apply some glow. Possibly duplicate layers and belnding modes may be involved, but really, it's basic bog standard stuff you can create by stacking a few native effects in AE. For reusability you would save these setups as animation presets. Generally you must get away from thinking that things in AE would be done in any way like in PS. Clearing your mind of some preconceptions might actually make it easier to adapt and recognize required steps using native methods in AE.
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What AE does have are Animation and Effect presets. So, once you've set something up that you like, you can save it as a preset and apply it any time in the future. The nice thing about presets is that everything is still live, so you can change stuff if it doesn't quite work for you as is.