Since I updated after effects in January I have had this issue. When I try to launch after effects the only thing that comes on screen is an empty error box. I have looked around the forums ever since but I have had no luck trying any of the posted answers. Renaming/deleting adobe folders in documents and appdata does nothing. completely removing aftereffects with a cleanup tool, updating graphics drivers and so on makes no difference. One thing I noticed was that when I tried logging on to my personal adobe account and installing after effects as trial it all seemed to work fine, but as soon as I log on to my school account and the program license is validated it stops working right away.
This is what the error message looks like and in the task manager you can see that the error box is the ONLY thing running under after effects.
Also when closed, nothing else happens except for the regular startup error message "After Effects can't continue. unexpected failure during application startup".
I'm on an Asus NJ550:
CPU: intel core i7-4710HQ 2x2.5GHz
GPU: Nvidia 860M (latest drivers)
RAM: 8GB DDR3
OS: Windows 10 Home
Everything else works just fine, including all other Adobe Software.
This bug should be fixed in the update that released today. See Tim's post about it here. The After Effects CC 2017 update to version 14.2 is rolling out worldwide. It may take a day or so to show up for you depending on where you live. You also may need to log out and back in to your CC app or other funky things to get it to show up.
Please let us know if this works for you.