I posted a question today. Wondering if it's at all related. I get a white screen between page loads. But only with version 6.0 and up.
At any rate it might help you if you can see your errors in the emulator. There may be easier ways to get the error logs but here's how I do it.
Run that and then find where it tries to load index.html and see if it's not finding it. e.g. wrong path perhaps. And if it's not that, either way I'd be curious what error you're getting to see if it's related.
Running the Emulator
Don't select Start from the AVD manager.
Instead from the terminal do
navigate to /Users/<user>/Library/Android/sdk/tools
$ ./emulator -avd AVD_for_Galaxy_S5
open new terminal window
navigate to /Users/<user>/Library/Android/sdk/platform-tools
$ ./adb install /Users/<user>/Downloads/FeatureTest-debug.apk
For logging in case of errors
$ ./adb logcat
-r to reinstall
$ ./adb install -r /Users/<user>/Downloads/FeatureTest-debug.apk
Yes try connecting Chrome Developer tools to your phonegap app and check for errors. As well if possible run adb logcat as mentioned above, to check for deeper exceptions.