What operating system are you using? Acrobat X is not supported on the latest versions of Windows and Mac OS.
I am using Windows 7 Professional.
Good, that's a supported OS. It's however still possible that updates to Windows 7 since the end of life of Acrobat X could potentially cause such problems.
What you are seeing is an application crash. In an ideal world, Acrobat (or any other application) should never crash, but it's possible that due to either something on your system, a certain configuration, or something in the file you are trying to process is causing Acrobat do to something that results in a crash. Usually crashes are high priority problems, and developers try to fix them as quickly as possible. Acrobat X is unfortunately no longer supported by Adobe, which means that there won't be any fixes, regardless of how severe a problem you are running into.
Do you have any other version of Acrobat or the free Adobe Reader installed on your computer? If so, uninstall them.
Do you have any 3rd party plug-ins installed in Acrobat? If so, open up Acrobat's Preferences, go to the "General" category and select to load certified plug-ins only. If this fixes the problem, one of your 3rd party plug-ins is causing the problem, and you need to talk to the developer of that plug-in.
Is this happening with all PDF files, or just one or a small number of files from the same source? If it's only caused by some file, chances are that the files are corrupt (one way to test is to do a File>Save As and save the file under a new filename - does that trigger a problem too?).
The first thing I would try is to repair the Acrobat installation. You can do this by gong to Acrobat's Help menu, then select the Repair option. Does Acrobat still crash after that? If so, I would try to re-install Acrobat, but because a normal un-install leaves "stuff" on the system that could cause the same problems after you install again, Adobe made a tool that gets rid of all information related to Acrobat or Reader. You can download this "Cleaner" from here: Download Adobe Reader and Acrobat Cleaner Tool - Adobe Labs
If you still run into the same problem after you run the Cleaner and re-install Acrobat, then unfortunately, there is nothing else we can do.
"The first thing I would try is to repair the Acrobat installation. You can do this by gong to Acrobat's Help menu, then select the Repair option" worked perfectly as the solution.