Why so? Isn't selection a limit?
Using Select Color Range can give you ambiguous results. A selection is not an on/off entity, but can exist as degrees of opacity from zero to 100%. The resulting marching ants indicate areas of 50% selection or greater, so if you paint over such a selection, the resulting stroke will appear denser where the selection is 100% than in areas merely 50%.
A good way to visualize such a selection is turn on Quick Mask. What I did below was run a black to white gradient across the image, and Ctrl click a channel to load it as a selection. I then saved that selection. After filling the background with full white and loading that selection again, the marching ants look like this
...but if I turn on Quick Mask (by hitting the Q key), I can see that the selection actually extends right across the image, but becomes thinner
If I turn off Quick Mask and paint across the page, I get this:
I will explain what I am planning to do. So maybe someone can give me some hints how to get what I want.
Here I have a logo. http://www.bildites.lv/images/rxjhfveb/44848/thumbnail.png
For the van, axe and fishing rod part I want to give a grass texture, for the eagle's part I want to give sky texture. And in the background I want to put a world map.
With a silhouette like your logo, it is easy to make a selection by Ctrl clicking any of the Channels. This selects the white background, so invert by using Shift Ctrl i. Save that selection and call it Logo
The final effect is now very easy.
Add the sky and grass layer
Load the Logo selection
Add a layer mask to the sky/grass layer.
You probably need to unlink the layer mask by clicking on the chain link. You can now move the grass and sky independantly of the mask to align with the logo.
Note: I added a black stroke to the outline simply because it was crying out for it.
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If a pixel is only partially selected [as is likely using Color Range], then it can be partially painted. If you saved the selections as Channels, you can use Levels or Curves to "Tighten them up" .
It sounds like you are going to be using a number of masks for various effects, so you may as well start building them at the beginning. What I would recommend, though, is to use the Pen tool to trace the various elements of the logo and use them as Vector masks, which will be resolution-independent.
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Another way to avoid that "antialiasing" of having some pixels transparently selected, leaving a rim, would be to do your fills using a Layer Clipping Mask. In this video, I used select>color range to remove the background (without so much concern for edge pixels)
I've made a quick selection of your eagle (minus the feet) and moved it to it's own layer.
Then I moved a photo of sky into the image (on top of the layer that's going to define what we see of the sky). I could create a Clipping Mask from the Layer menu, but I prefer to Alt/Option click between the layers. The sky fills the pixels on the eagle layer - and there's no edge - or rather, the edge matches the partly translucent pixels on the edge of my original eagle selection.
This may be slightly less "pixel-neurotic" as I call it, but it ensures that all necessary pixels are filled with the sky.