I have a ton of photos in folders that I'm trying to rate, adjust, move to other folders, etc. but I can't always sit at my desk to do it.
Is there a way for me to do this remotely so I don't need to be tied to my desk when I do it?
No. You can't organize the contents of folders remotely.
Folders in Lightroom are the folders on your computer's hard drive. When you move or rename something in a folder, you are making that change on the computer, not just inside of Lightroom. This is why you can't do it remotely.
You could assign keywords to your photos remotely. This has many advantages over moving folders around, the primary advantage is that photos can have multiple keywords assigned, but they can be in only one folder.