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Well, your install of InDesign has an English interface, so you won't have any control over ruby (pronunciation guide for Japanese) or kenten (emphasis marks for Japanese). The UI tools to control these are only available in Chinese (or Japanese, or Korean) versions of InDesign.
I suspect that scaling your paragraph is causing overrides because you have the setting "When Scaling: Apply to Content" set in your Preferences, so when you scale the paragraph down a bit it's actually reducing the point size of your type, right? But the point size for ruby is already zero before scaling, I would guess (because you don't use ruby in Chinese) so it's throwing an override to show that it can't scale the ruby or kenten below zero points.
I think you can clear those overrides with impunity. Ruby is essentially a pronunciation guide for Japanese, and is not used in Chinese at all. Kenten refers to a type of emphasis mark in Japanese, and I don't think they are used in Chinese. Take a look right here:
The black dots are kenten, and the tiny Japanese letters above the line are ruby. Don't have 'em in your Chinese text? Clear overrides with a clear conscience.
Ruby and Kenten settings are available in the UI with the Japanese version of InDesign only, I think. //EDIT: See Joel's reply 1. I was not accurate enough.
Why do you want to redefine the paragraph style if you changed text in one single location of your document?
If you change the paragraph style text throughout your document could change.
But you asked and maybe there is a solution by scripting.
Just to give you an idea and overview how many property : value pairs are available for ExtendScript scripting with text formatting, below a link to the scripting reference of InDesign CC 2017. Search for "kenten" or "ruby" or scroll down the list shown in "Property List":
Don't know, if a simple script like that below will work with Japanese property : value pairs with a Non-Japanese InDesign version.
If you want to try this, copy the two lines of code to your text editor with formatting off—text only, save the file perhaps as:
Make sure that the file has .jsx as suffix.
Move the script file to the right folder in your file system so that it is available in your InDesign Scripts panel.
To get that folder:
Open the Scripts panel in InDesign and right-click the User folder you are seeing there.
The only context available command should be "Reveal in Finder" or "Reveal in Explorer".
Do that and move the jsx file to that folder.
1. Backup your document
2. Select one "character" in your Japanese text
3. Run the script below with a double-click
to the script's file name showing in the InDesign Scripts panel.
The script tries to change all text values of the applied paragraph style to the values of the selected text.
app.selection.appliedParagraphStyle.properties = app.selection.properties; alert("Script has run. Check your applied paragraph style.");
Don't know if that will work with your Japanese text.
I cannot test that.
And since paragraph styles could be applied document wide save the document with a new name after running the script.
did not see your answer before posting reply 2.
Thank you for the explanation…
Thank You guys for an extensive explanation. That solves the problem. Since it's only Chinese and I see no Ruby or Kenten points, I'll clear the overrides. It's only one line so I think I would be able to spot them.
...and that's right when I scale the font it calculates kenten and ruby proporionally. Only when I increase the font I get more NEGATIVE values, and when I make it tiny small, the override values get close to zero fractions (also negative).