No idea without seeing the modified properties of the layer that is giving you problems. I suspect that you might be running into a counting limit somewhere.
If the comp one five minute shot? if so you may have to change the settings somewhere. If there is more than one shot in the composition then break the movie into multiple compositions. AE is best suited to creating shots that you can't create in a NLE. It's a lousy editing tool.
Do your keyframes extend all the way to the end of your composition? It sounds like your end keyframes on your adjustment layers are at the 3 minute mark, when they should be at the end of your timeline.
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