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In tagged PDF you can call your tags any way you want. Quite a few applications (Word InDesign, ...) for example use the names of the paragraph styles as tag names when exporting to tagged PDF. As of course nobody, not to mention assistive technology, would ever know beforehand which such custom named tag implies which semantic role, it is necessary to define for auch such custom tag, what its semantic role is. Semantic roles are expressed by using ome of the predefined standard tags, such as H1, P, Table, Div, etc.
Each tagged PDF has a location - the RoleMap entry - where a list of mappings between custom tags and standard tags is stored. So if I decided to call my paragraph style for heading level 2 "Überschrift 2. Ebene" (which you will only be able to fully understand if you know some German), there might be a custom tag "Überschrift 2. Ebene" in the tagged PDF I create, but there should also be an entry in the RoleMap that indicates that the standard tag for this custom tag is H2.
In Acrobat you can double check the RoleMap by going to the Tags panel, and in the fly-out menu in the upper left of that panel, execute the menu item "Edit Role Map...". This is also the place to fix anything that is wrong or might be missing (make sure that the custom tag names in this list are exactly the same as the tag names used in the actual tagging structure in the document).
So is the Role Map the same as "Document Roles dialogue box?
That's it. May be called slightly different things in different versions of Acrobat Pro.