Do you have recovery enabled in Preferences? It's under File Handling.
I've never had that feature turned on, but even when I try turning it on now, I don't see such a folder - not in CC2017, and not in 2015.5.
EDIT: hold on - the folder popped up in 2015.5, after the specified interval. Maybe they moved it? Still can't see it in 2017.
Mine's in the usual spot.
C:\Users\(Name)\AppData\Roaming\Adobe\Adobe Photoshop CC 2017\AutoRecover
Mine is at the drive I specified for (first) scratch disk
Yeah, that's it. I re-checked on my home system, where I have primary scratch on the system SSD, and here I get the Autorecovery folder where the OP specifies.