Particle World doesn't support random temporal sampling and otehr fancies, so you are out of luck. You would have to buy Trapcode Particular or other advanced third-party effects that offer more features in that department.
Mylenium is right. Particular would be perfect for this.
particle has supported on AE cc2014 ?
However, is it possible to create any sort of particle effect that actually uses footage or multiple frames as the texture in After Effects?
yes. it does lack advanced options (like the ones you would find in particular) but you can use a video instead of a still layer. just select it in the texture layer as usual. to make it loop just use the interpret footage dialog in the project panel.