Acrobat can't interpret Photoshop layers into PDF layers. It can do that with InDesign, AutoCAD, or Visio.
I know you tried it by placing your PSD into InDesign, but what they want is for you to save out each Photoshop layer as a separate InDesign layer, then output to PDF. So - what I mean is that it doesn't interpret the Photoshop layers at all, but it does interpret InDesign layers.
Perhaps this article'll help? PDF layers, Adobe Acrobat DC
I also wish PDF's could understand Photoshop and Illustrator layers! Perhaps we should put that in as a feature request at: Feature Request/Bug Report Form
Thanks S_Gans. This is so helpful to know!
You're so welcome! I'm sorry it wasn't a happier answer, though!
If you have CS5 Illustrator open the psd file in that so that it imports the layers as objects. You can now save as a pdf from Illustrator. For a smaller file size uncheck the 'Preserve Illustrator Editing Capabilites'. The pdf can be opened in Adobe Acrobat Reader and the layers selectively viewed.