Are you doing this in InDesign? If so, what version? The screen capture you provided is in either Adobe Acrobat or Adobe Reader.
So you need the numbers to remain 80-82 in the InDesign doc, but renumber 1-3 in the PDF?
Open the 3-page PDF in Adobe Acrobat DC
View > Show/Hide > Navigation Panes > Thumbnails
Right click page 80 > Page Labels
Choose begin new section, Style 1,2,3, Start at 1.
If you don't have Acrobat (only Reader) you might save the InDesign document as a new file. Delete the pages before and after pages 80-82, and allow InDesign to renumber the pages in the Pages panel. Then export the 3 pages.
So unless you want to make a new 3-page pdf out of your file, open Acrobat and renumber there, as per my instructions above.
Adding to Barbara, PDF preserves the same numbering scheme as it was created from Indesign.
Creating sections to show desired page numbering in PDF(not a good solution) is one of the workaround that you can use. Otherwise, following what Barbara showed is a good solution
I'm glad it worked!
As Aman said above, Acrobat uses InDesign's numbering, which is normally exactly what we want. When I save a book to PDF that has front matter in lower case roman numerals (i.e., i, ii, iii) and the body in arabic numerals (1, 2, 3), they translate perfectly to Acrobat. The reason I know how to renumber in Acrobat is because not all programs can do this. I've spent years having to manually update the numbers in Acrobat to match the running heads. Your situation is very specialized—but luckily there is an answer for you as well.