As fair warning, I am a novice at After Effects, and it might be hard to explain stuff to me but help is severely needed. I've discovered that my single frame renders in Cinema 4D look better than my full video renders when I put the c4d file in After Effects and render it from there. Preferably, I'd like to make my After Effects renders of the c4d file look as good as the C4D renders, so I'm hoping someone could help me out.
Nobody can advise specifically without seeing your render settings. That and of course there's already a ton of workflow issues visible in your screenshots. If you use post effects in C4D, you have to turn off alpha rendering and/ or render them as separate multipass layers. Conversely, you have to check your Gamma settings and render in the C4D render panel, not the viewport to predictably judge the output. Conversely, you may need to check bit depth, color management settings and so on in AE. I would strongly suggest you read up on these things in both programs. You're really mucking up the render settings here.