Do you know of any reason
that the colors in a photo processed with Adobe Camera Raw would be
slightly different when opened in Photoshop CC 2017?
Is there a setting in ACR or PS that can fix this?
Yes, a defect/corrupt/wrong display profile. This often affects different applications differently.
Rerun your calibrator to make a new profile. Make sure it's set to produce version 2 and matrix-based profiles, not version 4 or table/LUT-based. The latter two are known to be problematic in some situations. That is if your calibrator has these options, if not you're probably good.
If you don't have a calibrator, use sRGB IEC61966-2.1 for now, or Adobe RGB if your monitor is a wide gamut model.