"Export" is not the process you are looking for.
When looking to move edits from one catalog to another, you want the "export as catalog" and "import from catalog" options in the File menu.
When you "export as catalog", you can specify to include the actual files or not. Either way, you will want to have renamed your files prior to the export. (Renaming the files for your reason is a bad idea to start with.)
I did use export as catalog.
If the only reason you change names is to identify the images you have edited then you can accomplish that after you bring the changes back to the main catalog.
Immediately after importing they will be available in the Previous Import collection the Catalog Panel. Then you can rename them.
If you choose to keep a copy of the files with no edits make sure you select "Preserve old Settings as Virtual Copy." upon import.
However, I feel there is a flaw in your workflow as I understand it. Allow me to offer an alternative.
From the desktop catalog, Export a given set of images and select the following
this way you will be able to edit the images (as they are smart copies) without duplicating files. Then when you're ready to import them back to the desktop catalog you need only select Metadata and Develop Settings.
Then perform names as required, if required and while you're at it create a collection of those files that have been edited.
Thanks for your suggestions. I will have to change my workflow if I want to use the laptop.