Network connectivity can cause multiple known issues with InDesign, and the workflow you've troubleshooted with is the best workaround for this at the moment (saving to desktop before moving to server.) Sorry for any inconvenience this causes you and your team.
I also suggest submitting a detailed bug report here so the InDesign team can take a further look: Feature Request/Bug Report Form
I am Having a similar issue. I am working off of the network connected to another iMac that has an external drive that has all of our files. We didn't have any problems in the past couple weeks but all of a sudden i cannot save any files or package to his drive or even my desktop. All of my permissions are read and write but am still having problems saving and packaging. The errors that I am getting are the Error code: 1, as well as cannot find the file to package even though the file is open. Any help would be appreciated.
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The issue has been fixed with Apple’s MacOS High Sierra 10.13.4 Beta (17E139).
You can try out the fix by updating your machine to the beta update from Apple.
Let us know if the issue is fixed for you after aforementioned High Sierra beta update.