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Adobe Color is not color managed. The RGB values picked up there will produce different actual colors depending on the document color space.
sRGB should be reasonably close, but you will never get a perfect match between a color managed and a non-color managed environment, due to the inherent unpredictability of the latter.
Thank you for your reply. To be clear: are you suggesting that I go to Edit -> Color Settings and change the "Working Spaces" RGB profile from Adobe RGB to sRGB? I did that and still get much more saturated colors in the swatches. Or do you have another setting in mind?
The working space is just a fallback default, the important thing is what color space the file is in.
But even in an sRGB file, how close the color is depends on your monitor. It can be close or it can be very different, and there's no way to predict that. This is what "no color management" implies - there's no reference; all bets are off. Anything can happen.
Adobe's policies on this are schizophrenic. While the major graphic applications have always been the industry standard for color management implementation, the web-related apps never had proper color management support at all. Even inside Photoshop, the Save For Web and Export modules have color management disabled by default.
It's as if they haven't even noticed that web browsers have been color managed for a long time. It's a mystery, and there's no sensible explanation for it.