I'd like to create an experience for customers that have taken a specific path on my website. Is there a way to use an Analytics segment as the audience in my Target activity?
Yes, you can share a segment from Analytics using the People Core Service. This will allow you to use that segment as an Audience in one of your Target activities.
You can learn more about the People Core Service and the audience sharing options on the audiences forum - Adobe Experience Cloud Audiences
For this specific question, I'd recommend looking at the following post to see which audience creation option fits your needs best.