What security software are you using?
Failing on initializing camera makes me think the networking processes are getting stopped somewhere. Maybe a firewall issue?
I looked in the "allow app and feature" in my firewall and I couldn't find anything related to after effects, what should I be looking for?
Well, After Effects should definitely be allowed.
Are you still facing this problem? If not, let us know how you solved it. If so, please let us know so we can assist you further.