Start by updating your graphics driver. Anything beyond that will require better and more detailed info.
I am having a very similar issue. It didn't start for a while but all of a sudden every time I open After effects, this happened on 2017 and now 2018, it closes as soon as it loads. I tried to find a solution but i really only found someone suggesting that when you are attempting to open AE you turn on caps lock, presumably because caps lock prevents AE from Refreshing. That has help some, sometimes it is enough to make AE stay open, some times it isn't. But then if I do get it to stay open, if i switch do a different window, like to drag and drop in assets, AE closes. I am running Windows 10, Graphics card is up to date. I've got a desktop with two Hard drives and because you can't choose where Adobe products are installed (I've never been given that option at least) it is installed on the same hard drive as windows. That Hard Drive is rather small and I switched AE's caching location onto my other drive, about the same amount of space has been open on it since before the problem started so I doubt it's that my little 250gb SSD is too full as it wasn't an issue at first. I hope that's enough information, Thank you.
I would recommend contacting Adobe support. This kind of weird technical thing is usually what they're good for.
Keep in mind that, when you go to Adobe.com/support and are on the page to choose what software you need support with, you shouldn't click on the AE icon first. Instead, click on the Creative Cloud icon and THEN click on After Effects.