??? I don't undrstand what you want?
TextFrame has font "Arial",
if i copy text ="表示さ" into TextFrame, font Arial can't display "表示さ".
Has Indesign setting auto change other Font can display "表示さ" (The same setting "Enable missing glyph protection" of Illustrator)
There is no setting in InDesign to enable the same behavior as Illustrator.
There are two checkboxes in the Preferences (see Is InDesign cc compatible with Arabic AXT fonts? , found by searching for "indesign missing glyph protection"), but it does not work as I was expecting on CC 2017.
That is, I get a warning when if I apply a font to your example text that not every glyph could be displayed, but it does not follow up with the most logical next step: automatically assign a font that does contain these glyphs. Illustrator does do that.
(The Online Help does not mention this option anywhere I can find so I cannot verify if I am using it wrong.)
Post on Feature Request/Bug Report Form as a Feature Request.