No you can't do that. make sure to send the PDF to Acrobat Reader on the phone, it isn't the usual PDF viewer.
Based on your description of the problem, my guess is that your form isn't actually empty but that it was filled using something like Preview or some other crippled PDF viewer that doesn't know how to properly add what are known as appearances to the fields. Appearances are the visual representation of the datas on the page. If that is the case, there is no solution other than training your people to use a better viewer. Adobe Reader for mobile devices and PDF Expert are both capable of filling the form and creating the appearance properly.