Long and short: No. There are some automation plug-ins and scripts for AE, but generally there's no way to dynamically link such stuff to external sources in a way that would be useful for broadcast work, give or take the error-prone expression hack to link some basic external text file. If you really need it that often, it might be smarter to look into genuine broadcast titling systems from Ventus and what have you. All AE can give you is its own native text layers with all the limitations that they have.
You could try CompsFromSpreadsheet:
If you do, be sure to report back on how well you find that it works.
I've gotten pretty good results by copying and pasting long strings of text from Excel and/or text documents into Premiere Pro's "Default Crawl" Title generator. Although, that's a "legacy" feature now.
Something else I've found helpful is copying a multi-cell spreadsheet from Excel to Word, converting the resulting table to text (separating text with Paragraph Marks), then using Word's Find and Replace to replace Paragraph Marks with three spaces or whatever character(s) are being used to separate the type segments. This quickly gets the text into one long line for copying and pasting to PR or AE or wherever.
You know what works great for this? An actual Character Generator designed and built for the purpose.
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